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藏獒AKC之路

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藏獒AKC之路 今天在AKC官網上無意看到了藏獒于07.1.1正式并入AKC的工作犬組并可以參加各類比賽的消息,于是在網絡上收集了一些關于藏獒在AKC的資料,與愛寵人一同分享。With the Tibetan Mastiffs going into the Working Group on January 1, this was one of the first shows to see this new AKC breed in the Working Group ring.

隨著藏獒于07.1.1進入工作犬組,這是第一次看到這一AKC工作犬組的新品種參加犬展(指前文提到的于07年1月6號至7號在Indio, California舉辦的犬展)。 藏獒于05年1月1號進入AKC的 Miscellaneous Class(混合犬組),即未加入編組的認可品種,也可以理解為候補犬組。

TIBETAN MASTIFF TO ENTER MISCELLANEOUS CLASS JANUARY 2005 -- Six Additional Breeds To Be Recorded by AKC Foundation Stock Service -- New York, NY – As of January 1, 2005 the Tibetan Mastiff will be eligible to compete in the Miscellaneous Class at AKC events.

六個附加犬種被AKC 基礎檔案服務部門(意譯)記錄在案。 從2005.1.1起,藏獒有資格參加AKC舉辦的混合犬組比賽。 但是進入Miscellaneous Class僅代表品種被AKC承認了,只有獲得正式編組才能算是后的成功。如普洛特獵犬(ploot),98即進入混合犬組,直至07.1.1才被允許進入狩獵犬組。 在05年藏獒進入AKC混合犬組之后,AKC就頒布了藏獒的AKC標準,此標準與國人所認定的藏獒標準有較大出入。

Tibetan Mastiff Miscellaneous Class General Appearance Noble and impressive: a large, powerful, heavy, well built dog, well muscled, with much substance and bone, and of solemn but kindly appearance. The Tibetan Mastiff stands well up on the pasterns, with strong, tight, cat feet, giving an alert appearance. The body is slightly longer than tall. The head is broad and impressive, with massive back skull, the eyes deep-set and almond shaped, slightly slanted, the muzzle broad and well-padded, giving a square appearance. The typical expression of the breed is one of watchfulness. The tail is well feathered and carried over the back in a single curl falling over the loin, balancing the head. The coat and heavy mane is thick, with coarse guard hair and a wooly undercoat. The tail and britches are well feathered. The Tibetan Mastiff has been used primarily as a family and property guardian for many millennia, and is aloof and watchful of strangers, and highly protective of its people and property.

藏獒 預備犬組 整體外觀 尊貴威猛。藏獒體型巨大,身體長度稍長于高度,強壯有力,骨骼肌肉發育良好,威嚴肅穆,表情冷靜,頭面寬闊,頭骨寬大,眼炯炯有神,呈杏仁狀,稍斜。肌肉寬大且伸展,形成一種立體感。它的尾巴很有特色,尾位與背部齊平并自然卷起附于背部,而下垂時會覆蓋生殖器;與頭部保持平衡。被毛和鬃毛很厚,尤其是頸部的鬃毛像一條厚圍巾纏在頸部。 本犬種的典型特色是警覺性高,主要用于家庭和財產的守衛,對陌生人有強烈的敵意和殺傷力,絕對忠誠地保護它的主人和財產。

Size, Proportion, Substance Size: Dogs - minimum of 26 inches at the withers. Bitches - minimum of 24 inches at the withers. Dogs that are more than one inch below the minimum heights to be severely faulted. Proportion: Slightly longer than tall (9-10), (i.e.,the height to length, measured from sternum to ischium should be slightly greater than the distance from withers to ground). Substance: The Tibetan Mastiff should have impressive substance, both in bone and structure, as well as strength. When dogs are judged equal in type, proportion and movement, the more substantial dog, in terms of substance and bone, not merely height, is to be given preference. Head Broad, heavy and strong. Some wrinkling in maturity, extending from above eyes down to corner of mouth. A correct head and expression is essential to the breed. Expression: Noble, intelligent, watchful and aloof. Eyes: Very expressive, medium size, any shade of brown. Rims to be black except in blue/grey, blue/grey and tan dogs and brown dogs, the darkest possible shade of grey or brown. Eyes deep-set, well apart, almondshaped, and slightly slanting. Any other color or shape to be severely faulted since it detracts from the typical expression. Ears: Medium size, V-shaped, pendant, set-on high , dropping forward and hanging close to head. Raised when alert, on level with the top of the skull. The ear leather is thick, covered with soft short hair, and when measured, should reach the inner corner of the eye. Skull: Broad and large, with strongly defined occiput. Broad back skull. Stop: Deep and well defined. Muzzle: Broad, well filled and square when viewed from all sides. Proportions: Measurement from occiput to stop and stop to end of nose, equal or slightly shorter. Nose: Broad, well pigmented, with open nostrils. Black, except with blue/grey or blue/grey and tan dogs, the darkest shade of grey and brown dogs, the darkest shade of brown. Any other color to be severely faulted. Lips: Well developed, thick, with moderate flews and slightly pendulous lower lips. Bite: Complete scissor bite. Level bite acceptable. Essential that dentition fits tightly, to maintain square form of muzzle. Teeth: Canine teeth large, strong, broken teeth not to be faulted. Faults: Missing teeth, overshot, undershot bite.

大小、比例、特質 大?。汗绺咦畹?6英寸,母犬肩高最低24英寸。公犬和母犬再矮也不得低于各自的最低高度1英寸。 比例:身長稍長于高度,(長:高=10:9)如高比長,從胸骨到坐骨,應稍大于肩胛到地面的距離。 特質:藏獒有給人深刻印象的特質。骨骼和身體都很健壯。比其他同等大小和比例的犬都要優秀,不僅僅在高度上,就連其他特質上,藏獒都是最優秀的犬。 頭部 頭面寬闊,頭骨寬大,成狗有皺褶,從眼睛上端一直延伸到嘴角,對本犬種來說正確的頭部特征和臉像對它的繁殖是非常重要的。 表情:尊貴、機智、警覺、孤傲。 眼睛:中等大小,眼睛深邃,自然分開呈杏仁狀,稍斜,黑中閃著亮光,非常有神。 耳朵:中等大小,V字型,自然下垂,緊貼面部*前,警覺時自然提起,耳部覆蓋著短且柔軟的絨毛。 面部:頭面寬闊,頭骨寬大,鼻梁堅挺。 額段:深且明顯。 臉部肌肉:寬且大,從各種角度來看都非常的充實和立體。 比例:從枕骨到頭斷和頭斷到鼻尖的比例基本相等。 鼻子:寬且大,鼻內側外翻。 嘴唇:突出,厚實,上唇兩側適度下垂。 咬合:呈剪刀式咬合,水平咬合也可以接受。牙齒的緊密是必須的。如此才能保持肌肉的平整。 牙齒:長,健壯,后天遭破損的牙齒,不視為缺點。 缺陷:缺齒,上顎或下顎突出的,或下前牙突出的。

Neck, Topline and Body Neck: The neck is well muscled, moderately arched, and may have moderate dewlap. The neck, especially in dogs, is shrouded by a thick upstanding mane. Topline: Topline straight and level between withers and croup. Body: The chest is rather deep, of moderate breadth, with reasonable spring of rib. Brisket reaching to just below elbows. Underline with pronounced (but not exaggerated) tuck-up. The back is muscular with firmly muscled loin. There is no slope or angle to the croup. Tail: Medium to long, but not reaching below hock joint; well feathered. Set high on line with top of back. When alert or in motion, curled over back or to one side. Tails that are double curled or carried in an incomplete curl to be faulted. Forequarters Shoulders: Well laid back, muscular, strongly boned, with moderate angulation to match the rear angulation. Legs: Straight, with substantial bone and muscle, well covered with short, coarse hair, feathering, and with strong pasterns that have a slight slope. Feet: Cat feet. Fairly large, strong, compact, may have feathering between toes. Nails may be either black and/or white, regardless of coat color. A single dewclaw may be present on the front feet.

頸、背、軀干 頸:頸部肌肉豐滿,呈拱形。頭部下方有垂皮。特別是公犬,頭部圍繞著厚厚的直立的鬃毛。 背:背線直,脊背到尾骨是水平的。 軀干:粗壯,背部挺直寬闊,肌肉發達,柔韌性好,整體有稍微下蹲的感覺。胸深,并低于上肘部,軀干長度略大于高度。 尾巴:中等長度,長度不能超過踝關節,和背部呈一條直線,自然卷起。當警覺時,尾巴翹起,或朝向任何一邊。尾巴雙卷,或完全卷起而不能自然放松的是尾缺陷。 前驅 肩:雙肩平順,骨干的肌肉發達。 前腿:直立,骨骼肌肉粗大,覆有短的粗毛。直立時會有輕微的傾斜。 前足:貓足,相當大,健壯結實,趾與趾之間有毛。指甲可能是黑色或白色。單個的懸趾可能出現在前足。

Hindquarters Hindquarters: Powerful, muscular, with all parts being moderately angulated. Seen from behind, the hind legs and stifle are parallel. The hocks are strong, well let down (approximately one-third the overall length of the leg), and perpendicular. Feet: A single or double dewclaw may be present on the rear feet. Removal of rear dewclaws, if present, optional. Coat In general, dogs carry noticeably more coat than *****es. The quality of the coat is of greater importance than quantity. Double-coated, with fairly long, thick coarse guard hair, with heavy soft undercoat in cold weather which becomes rather sparse in warmer months. Hair is fine but hard, straight and stand-off; never silky, curly or wavy. Heavy undercoat, when present, rather woolly. Neck and shoulders heavily coated, especially in dogs, giving mane-like appearance. Tail and britches densely coated and heavily feathered. The Tibetan Mastiff is shown naturally. Trimming is not acceptable except to provide a clean cut appearance of feet. Dogs are not to be penalized if shown with a summer coat.

后軀 后軀:強壯有力,肌肉發達,所有部分都有棱角。從后面看,后腿和膝蓋是平行的。跗關節強壯,自然下垂(大約是腿長的1/3)與足垂直。 足:一個或是兩個的懸趾(狼爪)可能會出現在后足上,可選擇于出生后切除。 被毛 總的來說,公犬的皮毛看起來比母犬厚。被毛的質量比數量更重要,雙層的被毛相當濃密,豐厚的頸部鬃毛及原來柔軟的內層絨毛將會在夏天變得稀疏。毛發濃密堅韌直立,豐厚的下層皮毛顯得特別的粗獷。頸部和肩部有更長更粗的毛,特別是顯示在公犬身上。藏獒的外貌是自然的,無謂的修飾是不被接受的。當然,懸趾的切除,又另當別論。

Color Black, brown, and blue/grey, all with or without tan markings, and various shades of gold. Tan ranges from a very rich shade through a lighter color. White markings on breast and feet acceptable. Tan markings may appear at any or all of the following areas: above eyes as spots, around eyes (including spectacle markings), on each side of the muzzle, on throat, on lower part of front forelegs and extending up the inside of the forelegs, on inside of rear legs showing down the front of the stifle and broadening out to the front of the rear legs from hock to toes, on breeches, and underside of tail. Undercoat, as well as furnishings on breeches and underside of tail, may be lighter shades of the dominant color. The undercoat on black and tan dogs also may be grey or tan. Other markings such as sabling, brindling, white on other areas of the body, or large white markings, to be faulted. All other coat colors, while accepted, are to be faulted. Gait The gait of a Tibetan Mastiff is powerful, steady and balanced, yet at the same time, light-footed. When viewed from the side, reach and drive should indicate maximum use of the dogs moderate angulation. Back remains level and firm. Sound and powerful movement more important than speed. Temperament The Tibetan Mastiff is a highly intelligent, independent, strong willed and rather reserved dog. He is aloof with strangers and highly protective of his charges and his property. In the ring he may exhibit reserve or lack of enthusiasm, but any sign of shyness is unacceptable and must be severely faulted as inappropriate for a guardian breed. Conversely, given its aloof nature, judges should also beware of putting a premium on showiness. Approved: November 8, 2004 Effective: January 1, 2005

顏色 栗色、褐色、藍/灰色,所有的顏色都可能有或沒有棕色或金黃色的飾斑,而飾斑的顏色深淺不一。足部有白毛出現是可以接受的。飾斑可能在下列部位出現:眼睛上方的圓點,或可能圍繞在眼周圍,臉的內側,咽喉,前腿下部分和前腿內側的延伸部分,后腿的內側,后腿膝關節的前方和腿前寬闊的地方,后跗關節到腳趾,臀部和尾巴的下端。臀部和尾巴下端的毛可能比其他部位的顏色稍淺。內層絨毛在黑色或棕色的公犬身上可能是棕色或灰色,如果黑色、褐色、白色出現在身體的其他部位,或是身上出現大塊的白斑,視為缺點。另外,除上述顏色以外的其他顏色,也可以接受,但也視為缺點。 步態 藏獒的步伐是輕盈而有彈性的,自然而有力。從側面看啟動和停止都出現最有力,最伸展的動態,而運動時發出的聲音和有力感比速度更加重要。 習性 藏獒非常機敏,獨立,自主意識和領域意識強。遠離陌生人,對自己的領域和財產高度的保護。在展示會上會顯得保留或比較溫柔,但是作為一種護衛犬種,任何膽怯的表現都不被接受,而且是一種嚴重的缺陷。當然,任何的事物實地去觀察要比閱讀資料更為重要,更為清楚。 2004年11月8日批準 2005年1月生效 其中,與國人觀念出入最大的即是,在國人眼中被視為珍品的雪獒(即被毛白色的藏獒)在AKC的規則中被視為缺點。 此外,藏獒在此規定中被嚴格控制其攻擊性,攻擊性強的藏獒被視為失格,這也于國人傳統觀念中藏獒的兇悍勇猛大相徑庭。 差異的出現其實與阿拉斯加長毛短毛之爭(可參見拙文阿拉斯加長毛短毛之爭)同出一源,即國人對犬只的要求和AKC制定標準的出發點不同。AKC看重的是犬只的神經性和穩定的遺傳性狀,而國人更多偏重其實用性和外觀。 在收集資料時,看到一個名為espchl的訓犬師關于藏獒的一段言論,覺得很有道理,貼出來與大家分享。 目前報紙上,網絡上很多文章都神化了原產于中國西藏的大型犬藏獒.藏獒的兇猛程度被提高到了犬類之最的高度.但事實是否如此呢? 很多反映其兇猛的報道都是反映其誤咬傷無辜者的情況,這其實只反映其兇殘性,只有受控制的攻擊力才是可以利用的攻擊力,否則只有給主人帶來麻煩.      

先撇開受控性不談,先看看藏獒的格斗能力.如果藏獒的格斗能力最強的話那斗狗應該是用藏獒,而不是用比特,土佐.斗狗是任何品種都可以參加的,這在四川的斗狗場的初期階段可以看到,有不同的犬種在打比賽.但不論德國牧羊犬還是藏獒,沒有犬種能夠打敗體重只有30公斤左右的比特.比特的持續體力,咬合力,疼痛耐受力是別的犬種不能比擬的.因為它就是為了斗犬專門培養出來的.          

至于可訓性,藏獒在工作犬中是比較差的,大家看一下警犬中的犬種就知道了,按數量依此是德國牧羊犬,洛特偉勒和杜賓.德國人在培養工作犬方面確實是為世界做出了卓越的貢獻.大家誰看見過有用藏獒做警犬的? 藏獒是一種原始犬種,體質是比較好的.但由于國人沒有系統繁殖,目前國內藏獒的遺傳特性還沒有穩定下來.嚴格的說是否能稱為一種獨立犬種還有疑問.大家不要神化藏獒了,很多充其量不過是大的藏狗罷了.畜種培養是有系統性,科學性的,國內在這點上做得不好.應該首先把國內藏獒的遺傳特性穩定下來.          

在AKC里面藏獒(TIBET MASTIFF)是工作犬組里的一種獨立犬種,但那些都是引進到美國后在美國培養若干代的遺傳特性穩定的犬.所以此藏獒非彼藏獒.真希望國內有人能夠花幾十年時間成立國內藏獒俱樂部,并在國內把國內優秀藏獒的基因能夠穩定下來.畢竟這是中國的名犬. 綜上所述,喜愛藏獒是可以的,但大家要在充分了解這種動物,并掌握了相當的訓練技術之后在考慮飼養這種動物。


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